|1||1941||400 Jews are taken from a old people's home
and hospital and gased in special execution vans at Kalisz, Poland.
||2||1235||A Christian corpse is found on the road between Lauda and Bischofsheim, Germany. The Jews are blamed. Before a legal inquiry is made, clergy and townspeople massacre Jewish men, women, and children. 8 notable Jews from both towns are also tried the same day and tortured and executed.|
|3||1943||Nazis execute the last Jews of Opoczno,
Poland. They are the last 120 of a community of 3000.
||4||1349||Ravensburg, Germany is hit by the Bubonic Plague. The Jews of the town are burnt alive in the city castle where they fled, knowing they will be blamed for the Plague.|
|5||1919||Ukrainian National Army's "Battalions of Death" pass through Berdichev, Volhynia and loot the town. The local Jewish militia is disarmed and its members shot. Those attending the funerals are also shot.||6||1497||By decree of Emperor Maximilian I, Jews are expelled from the provincial capital Graz, of Styria, Austria. There have been Jews in the city for over 300 years, 30 years after its founding.|
|7||1943||SS take 500 Jews from Grojec ghetto in Poland to the forest near Gora Kalvarya and shoot them.||8||1945||Hungarian Arrow Cross fascists break into the Janos Sanatorium in Buda-Pesht killing several Jewish patients.|
|9||1945||Arrow Cross fascists pull Jewish patients from their beds at the Charite polyclinic in Buda-Pesht. They are shot on the banks of the Danube River.||10||1943||The Bochnia ghetto, Poland is liquidated. 3,500 Jews are murdered by Nazis.|
|11||1941||Domaczow ghetto, Byelorus is liquidated. 2,000 Jews are murdered by SS.||12||1412||The Castilian Edict containing 24 articles "contra Judaeos--Against the Jews" is proclaimed in Spain. Under one article, Jewish ghettoes are to be established in each Spanish town.|
|13||1298||Pretenders to the German crown, Adolf of Nasau and Albrecht of Habsburg struggle. The pro-Albrecht people of Rufach, Alsace accuse the Jews there of siding with Adolf, so they kill them and burnt them on woodpiles.||14||1945||150 patients and medical personnel of the Orthodox Jewish Hospital in Varosmajor, Hungary are murdered by ultra-right wing organization, Nyilas, gangs.|
|15||1755||Jeronimo Jose Ramos, a merchant of Braganza who has escaped an auto-da-fe once before, is burnt as a Judaizer at Lisbon.||16||1349||The Jews of Freiburg, Germany, men, women, children are murdered and also at Basel, Switzerland accused of being behind the Black Death plagues. The Jewish children at Basel are left alive to be baptized forcibly and raised as Christians.|
|17||1945||The labor camps Skarzysko-Kamienna, Mielec, and Plaszow, Poland are liquidated. 10,000 Jews are shot while 5,000 others are sent to Ravensbruck and Buchenwald.||18||1670||A 3 year old Christian child disappears at Metz, France. Raphael Levy is accused and tortured. The child is found to have been killed by a wild animal. Levy is still condemned and burnt at the stake. The townspeople petition the king to expulse the Jews from their town and he grants it.|
|19||1942||Of 1,000 Jews arriving at Riga, Latvia, on a transport from Vienna, less than 80 young Jews are spared for slave labor. The rest are murdered.||20||1945||Nazis shoot 4,000 Jews at Auschwitz II-Birkenau camp.|
|21||1349||Black Death Persecutions: The Jews of Feldkirch, Austria and Messkirch, Germany are burnt at the stake.||22||1349||Black Death Persecutions: The Jewish community at Speyer, Germany is destroyed viciously.|
|23||1639||63 are burnt at the stake for Judaizing at Lima, Peru by the Inquisition.||24||1943||25 cattle cars full of patients from the Het Apeldoornse Bos Jewish psychiatric hospital near Apeldoorn, Netherlands, are murdered at Auschwitz and burnt.|
|25||1945||Stutthof concentration camp at Gdansk, Poland is liberated. But there is hardly any Jews left to liberate.||26||1531||After an earthquake at Santarem, Portugal,
Christian monks incite the superstitious and terrified inhabitants against local Jews.
Riots drive the Jews to flee into the mountains during a particularly bitter winter cold,
and many die from cold and lack of food.
|27||1942||Hungarian Arrow Cross fascists raid the village of Stari Becej in Yugoslavia. They kill over 100 Jews.||28||1945||75 Jewish women are shot by SS at Malki,
|29||1942||2,000 Jews are murdered at the Domanevka camp, Ukraine by SS.||30||1544||King Ferdinand I expels Jews from the towns of Austria.|
|31||1942||Several hundred Jews from Kharkov, Ukrainia are killed near Drobitzky Yar.|
In Neuss, Germany, a mentally disturbed Jew kills a young Christian woman in a fit of madness, in front of many witnesses, Jews as well as Christians. The Christians present kill the madman at once, as well as 6 uninvolved bystanders, Jews of high esteem in the community.
As the result of a quarrel between a Jew and a recent convert, riots break out against the Jewish community of Lynn, England. Jews are butchered or burned in their houses. Part of the town is completely destroyed by fire.
A bomb planted by a Hungarian Fascist explodes in a synagogue in Budapest, Hungary, during services. One man is killed and several others injured.
400 Jews are murdered in the town of Liepaja, Latvian S.S.R.
In one more recent case of alleged ritual murder, known as the Damascus Affair, seven Jews are arrested in Damascus, Syria. After one of their friars and his servant disappear, the Capuchins accuse the Jews of having killed them in order to use their blood for the Passover rituals.
In the subsequent investigation two of the falsely accused Jews die under torture. After the intervention of several well-known European Jews, including Moses Montefiore and Adolphe Crémieux, the surviving Jews are liberated, but they will never be acquitted of the alleged crimes.
The first auto-da-fé in the Castilian town of Seville, Spain, is held. Six men and women, all honorable and respected citizens of Seville, are burned alive for Judaizing, secretly practicing the Jewish faith.
|7||1942||Several hundred Jews of the Stolpce ghetto in the Polish province of Minsk (today Belorussian S. S. R.), are taken to the Jewish cemetery and murdered there.||8||1945||
During the night, 180 deportees from the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany, among them many Jews, are shot on the way from the Mauthausen train station to the Mauthausen concentration camp in Upper Austria because they cannot walk any farther in the deep snow.
In Amsterdam, Dutch Nazis, supported by German soldiers, attack Jews who refuse to comply with anti-Jewish regulations. Several young Jews offered resistance; 19 are arrested and deported, most to the Mauthausen camp in Austria and to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland, where they perish.
In the ghetto of Stryj, Lvov, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), 2,000 Jews are shot.
|11||1943||998 Jewish men and women are deported from the Drancy transit camp in France to Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland. Upon arrival 802 of them are gassed; only 11among them 1 womanwill see the liberation of the camp by the Soviet army in 1945.||12||1486||
The seat of the Inquisition Tribunal is moved from Ciudad Real to Toledo, Spain. A plot against the Inquisition by some Conversos is betrayed and in the first auto-da-fé held by the recently moved tribunal, 750 persons of both sexes are led in a procession through Hie streets of Toledo. Most of them are punished financially and stripped of all civil rights. About 50 are condemned to death and burned at the stake.
Herded into cattle cars, 1,000 Jewish men and women are deported from the Drancy transit camp in the German-occupied zone in France to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland. On arrival 689 of the convoy are immediately sent to the gas chambers. Only 13 of themamong them one womansurvive until the liberation of the camp by the Soviet army in 1945.
|14||1349||Accused of poisoning the wells, the entire Jewish community of Strasbourg, Alsace, is condemned to death. A huge fire is lit and the 2,000 Jews of the town, adults as well as youngsters, are burned alive.|
Units of the Ukrainian National Army under the command of Semosenko march into Proskurov, Ukraine. They slaughter 1,500 Jews. A priest who asks them to stop the massacre is slain in front of the church.
|16||1349||During the night of February 16, all Jews are expelled from Burgdorf on the Emme, in the Swiss canton of Berne. As they are charged of having spread the plague, the nobleman Eberhard Von Kyburg drives them off his lands, confiscating all their property|
|17||1349||The Black Death Persecutions reach the small town of Mengen in the German province of Wurtemberg. The townspeople murder all the Jews and then completely destroy the Jewish quarter.||18||1945||
More than 500 Jews throughout Germany who have been protected up to now by their marriage to a Christian are arrested and deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia.
During the persecutions accompanying the Black Death massacres of Jews reach even the remotest spots in Germany. The entire Jewish community of the village of Sauhgau is slaughtered.
Duke Albrecht of Austria energetically protects his Jewish subjects against the persecution resulting from the Black Death epidemic and the superstitions of the time. But confronted with ultimata from all sides, and the threat of seeing his Jewish subjects slaughtered, he decides to preserve his sovereignty by assuming the role of executioner himself. So the Jews are burned at the stake in Schaffhausen and in Thurgau, Switzerland.
In the Protestant and Catholic churches of the Netherlands a pastoral letter is read, condemning the persecution of the Jews. On February 17 this letter was sent to the deputy of the Reich.
In retaliation for an accident in which Jew injured a Ukrainian, the Jewish community of Stanislavov, Ukrainian S.S.R., is annihilated by the SS and the Ukrainian police. 10,000 people are massacred in the Jewish cemetery. The Jewish resistance movement, led by Oskar Friedlander and Auda Luft, battles the Nazis.
The second auto-da-fé takes place in Ciudad Real, Spain, lasting two days. On the first day about 15 Jewish men and women are burned at the stake for Judaizing, secretly practicing Judaism. The bones and effigies of 20 more Jews, already deceased, are also burned.
At the beginning of the Second Crusade most of the Jewish communities in Germany, remembering the massacres of the First Crusade, ask the German King Conrad III and the bishops for protection and seek shelter in their bishops or their towns fortress. The Jews of Würzburg, Germany, have totally trusted in the protection of the bishop. When troops of Crusaders arrive on February 24, excesses against the Würzburg Jewry break out, during which 20 Jews are murdered and many injured.
The first and largest demonstration by non-Jews in a German occupied country against the persecution of the Jews, takes place in the Netherlands, in the form of a three-day general strike. Nine people are killed, about 50 severely wounded, and 200 are arrested and tortured. The towns of Amsterdam, Hilversum, and Zaandam are fined 18 million guilders. The mayors and the members of the city councils are replaced by Dutch Nazis.
A deportation convoy with 1,049 Jews from Vienna leaves for Opohe in the so-called General Government region of Poland.
|27||1943||Jews previously working in the war industry in Berlin are deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland.||28||1670||
The Jews of Vienna are expelled from the town by an edict of Emperor Leopold I.
The Jewish community of Worms on the Rhine, which is one of the oldest in Germany, is reached by the Black Death Persecutions. The alderman of Worms sentences the Jews to death at the stake, but they set fire to their own houses and more than 580 die in the flames.
An auto-da-fé is performed in the Portuguese town of Coimbra. The descendants of Jews baptized centuries earlier are accused of practicing Judaism secretly. Some are sentenced to death at the stake.
1941 In Amsterdam, Netherlands, the first Jew falls victim to the persecutions of the Nazis: Ernst Cohn, a refugee from Germany, is shot.
After the election of a new king of Poland in Warsaw, in which the Cossack leader Bogdan Chmielnicki played a decisive role, his Cossack hordes return to the Ukraine and continue their slaughter of the Jews. In the town of Ostrog they massacre at least 600 Jews.
The county of Navarre, Spain, tries to become independent of France. As a result of the political tensions massacres of Jews occur all over Navarre. On March 5, a Sabbath, a massacre begins in the town of Estella with one of the largest Jewish communities of Navarre. Several thousand Jews are slaughtered.
The second deportation train to the Majdanek extermination and concentration camp in Poland leaves Drancy in France. The cattle cars are crammed with 998 Jewish men and women who are sent east. Immediately after their arrival, 950 of them are gassed and only 4 survive until the liberation in 1945.
Crusaders setting out for the Holy Land attack the Jewish community of Stanford, England, considering it a good deed to kill the "murderers of our Lord." The wealth of the Jews is probably not a minor motive, too. The Jewish bouses are plundered, some Jews are murdered, and many mistreated. The crusaders flee before the royal officials can get hold of them.
1942 In the course of a three-day Aktion, 7,000 Jews from the ghetto of Kutno in the Polish province of Lodz are deported to the Chelmno extermination camp where they all perish.
A certain John of Seelau, an agitator, is beheaded on the order of the magistrate of Prague, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia; after that the townspeople start rioting, assaulting the town hall and looting the houses of the town councilors. Then they turn their attention to the Jewish quarter, plundering the Jewish houses and killing many of the inhabitants.
Hugo Bettauer, a Jewish writer from Vienna, dies sixteen days after an attempt on his life by an Austrian National Socialist. He was famous for his book, The Town without Jews. The assassin will be acquitted in the subsequent trial on the grounds of not being accountable for his actions. Bettauer is the first Jewish victim of the Nazis in Austria.
The Nazis transport 2,000 Jews from Plock, Poland, to the ghetto of Tomaszov Rawski in the Polish province of Lodz. The number of Jews in this ghetto is now 15,000. Every day dozens of Jews die from the mistreatment by the Nazis.
Under Albert V, Archduke of Austria, Emperor of Germany, and King of Bohemia (1411-1430), the persecutions of the Jews in his realm begin. They are accused of desecrating the host and those who dont submit to baptism are condemned to death. The persecution culminates in the burning at the stake of 120 Jewish men 92 Jewish women in Vienna. The Jewish community of 1,400 members ceases to exist. This event is later known in Jewish tradition as the Wiener Gesera (Vienna persecution).
An auto-da-fé is held in Lima, Peru, and 19 persons are accused of Judaizing (secretly practicing Judaism); 6 are burned in effigy, 3 are burned at the stake, and 16 are "reconciled," that is, they promise to repent. They have to do public penance and are deprived of all their civil rights.
The Jewish community of Bray, France, falls victim to a defamation spread by the townspeople. The Jews are accused of having executed a murderer by crucifixion, mocking Jesus Christ. King Philip Augustus hurries with his troops to Bray; the Jews must choose between baptism and death. About 100, almost the entire Jewish community, are burned at the stake.
After the sermon of a monk who is notorious for his hatred of Jews, the people of Seville, Spain, start attacking the Jews. In spite of the intervention of the city aldermen, the chief of police, and two judges many Jews are murdered. King Henry II intervenes to stop the killing for the moment but it recurs even more violently three months later.
|16||1474||Persecutions against the Conversos (children of those Jews who were forcibly baptized during the persecutions of 1391) break out in Spain. They are accused of Judaizing, secretly practicing Judaism. On March 16, armed bands march through the streets of Segovia, Spain. They break into the houses of Conversos, plunder and murder every Converso they can get hold of. The castellan of Segovia finally intervenes; otherwise the whole community would be annihilated.|
|17||1190||Rioting against the Jews of York, England, breaks out. The populace is stirred up by crusaders and aristocrats. The Jews flee into the towns castle. The armed crowd besieges the castle for six days. On the eve of March 16 the more courageous Jews commit suicide. The 500 survivors, who open the gates on March 17 in order to accept baptism, are all massacred by the rioters. Thus the Jewish community of York is annihilated.||18||1190||
One day after the terrible massacre of the Jews in York, crusaders slaughter 57 Jews in St. Edmund, England. They consider it an act of piety. However, a motive not to be ignored is the wealth of same members of the Jewish communities, which will provide the crusaders with the financial means for their undertaking.
This is the last day of the Aktion against the Jews of Mielec in the Polish province of Krakow. In the course of four days 7,800 Jews are either shot or sent to extermination camps.
From the Rohatyn ghetto, Polish district of Stanislavov (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), 2,000 Jews are taken to the border of town and killed, then hurriedly buried in a mass grave.
In connection with the Black Death Persecutions the Jews of Erfurt, Germany, are massacred. Led by the guildmasters, a crowd carrying a flag and a cross march an the Jewish quarter. The Jews try bravely to defend themselves, but when a hundred of them are slain, they set fire to their houses and perish in the flames.
At the time of the Black Death Persecutions, the Jews of Fulda, Gerrnany, hide in three houses, but the townspeople find and massacre them. Earlier the Jews had sought aid from the abbot but the abbots servants joined the murderers. Only a few Jews survive.
The local police, supported by the Hlinka Guards, a Slovak copy of the Nazi SS, start rounding up the Jews of Bratislava, capital of Slovakia, Czechoslovakia. Hundreds of Jews are arrested deported to the Sered labor camp. The Hlinka Guards were founded in honor of the Catholic priest Andrej Hlinka, who died in 1938.
From the Izbica Lubelska camp, 2,000 Jews are deported to Belzec and murdered there. Among them are many deportees from Austria and Czechoslovakia.
In the town of Eger, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, the crowd is stirred up by the sermon of a Franciscan. They start looting and the whole Jewish community is slainonly Meir, the architect of the local synagogue, his mother and his wife survive.
After the establishment of the Spanish inquisition in the Convent of San Paulo in Seville on January 2, 1481, the first auto-da-fé takes place there 17 Conversos, children and even grandchildren of the Jews forcibly baptized in 1391, burned at the stake. They are accused of Judaizing secretly practicing Judaism.
A little Christian girl is found dead in Valréas, France. The rumor spreads that the Jews killed the child in a ritual murder. Three Jews of Valréas are immediately seized, tortured, and burned at the stake. However, other Jews of the district are also rounded up, tortured, and finally burned at the stake.
In Konitz, Germany (today Poland), the body of a young man is found and a number of Jews are charged with the crime of ritual murder. Anti-Jewish riots break out and the synagogue is attacked. Finally, one of the accused, Moritz Levy, is sentenced to four years imprisonment. Later he will be pardoned by Kaiser William II. The Jewish population of Kanitz declines because many of them are economically ruined by the anti-Semitic agitation.
A pogrom breaks out in Balta, Ukraine. The local population, along with the peasants of the surrounding villages, destroys the Jewish quarter and loots ail their property. Many women are raped and many Jews are murdered.
|30||1943||From the Westerbork transit camp in the Dutch province of Drenthe, 1,255 Jewish internees are sent to the Sobibor extermination camp in Poland.|
According to the royal decree issued by the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, all Jews must leave the Spanish territories within four months. If they are found in Spain after this period (later prolonged to August 3), they are to be killed.