|1||1899||When the corpse of a Christian girl is found in a wood near Polna, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, violent anti-Jewish agitation starts. The Jews are falsely accused of blood libel and the 22-year-old Jew Leopold Hilsner is arrested, tried, and sentenced to death. Only through the intervention of T. G. Masaryk, later the first president of Czechoslovakia, the sentence is commuted to life imprisonment. An imperial amnesty sets Hilsner free in 1916.||2||1642||An auto-da-fe is held in Lisbon, Portugal, in which 86 persons are accused of being Judaizers, descendants of Jews that were baptized by force some centuries ago, who still secretly practice the Jewish religion. Two of them are burned alive, 4 are garroted before being burned and another 80 are made galley slaves.|
|3||1349||In Constance on the Bodensee, Germany, a baptized Jew called Nasson (Nathan) and his two sons set fire to their house, because they are not willing to abjure their faith.||4||1942||From the Horodenka ghetto, Ukrainian S.S.R., 1,500 Jews are assembled and murdered.|
|5||1943||In the Zloczow ghetto in East Galicia, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), 5,000 Jews are massacred.||6||1903||A pogrom breaks out in Kishinev, Moldavia, initiated and organized by the local authorities and the Russian government. In two days, 49 Jews are murdered and more than 500 are injured; 2,000 families are left homeless.|
|7||1720||An auto-da-fe is held in Madrid, Spain, shortly after a secret synagogue has been discovered in which twenty families have held Jewish services for some years. On this day, 5 Jews are burned at the stake.||8||1484||In Aries, France, monks incite the townspeople against the Jews. The Jewish communityis attacked and about 50 Jews are forced to accept Christianity. The others are murdered.|
|9||1943||Several hundred Jews who have been deported from Komarno in the Polish province of Lvov (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), to Rudki, are murdered there, together with 1,500 Jews of Rudki.||10||1882||1882 A pogrom breaks out in Balta in the Russian province of Podolia (today Ukrainian S.S.R.). All Jewish houses are looted, 40 Jews are massacred, 170 are wounded, and 20 Jewish women are raped. Altogether 1,250 Jewish dwellings and shops are razed, and 15,000 Jewsamong them many childrenare reduced to begging.|
|11||1649||1649 The climax of the Mexican Inquisition is marked by a great auto-da-fe in Mexico City, in which 109 persons are accused of being Judaizers, descendants of forcibly baptized Jews who still secretly practice the Jewish faith. Of that group, 75 are burned in effigy; 13 are bumed at the stake, all but one garroted beforehand. The only person bumed alive, because he doesn't repent, is Tomas Trevino of Sobremonte.||12||1463||1463 A crusade is organized after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. The crusaders, beggars, monks, peasants, and adventurers set out on April 12, 1463. They have gathered in Poland and march toward Cracow, where they attack the Jewish population30 Jews are murdered, many wounded. Only those who take refuge in the house of the bishop, Jan Gruszynczki, and the magistrate, Jacob Dembinski, are safe.|
|13||1891||1891 A few days before Passover, the eight-year-old daughter of the Jewish tailor Sarda of Corfu, in Greece, disappeared and is found dead on April B. In spite of the child being Jewish, a rumor spreads immediately that she was Christian and had been adopted by Sarda to be ritually killed for Passover. The rural population is inflamed and starts plundering and beating up the Jews. Finally the Jews are besieged in their ghetto as well as in the island's fortress.||14||1942||1942 In Riga, Latvia, 300 Jewish patients from the principal mental hospital are brought to the nearby Bikerneku forest and shot.|
|15||1941||1941 The Nazis arrest the Municipal Council of Salonika, Greece, and institute anti-Jewish laws. Salonika has had a Jewish community for 2,000 years. At the time of the German invasion about 50,000 Jews are living in Salonika.||16||1497||1497 The king of Portugal orders all Jewish children under the age of 14 taken away from their parents. They are sent to distant parts of the country, where they are baptized and brought up as Christians.|
|17||1943||In Kozova, Galicia, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), 500 Jews are murdered by the SS and the Ukrainian police.||18||1389||1389 A massacre against the Jews of Prague, Bohemia (today Czechoslovakia), breaks out. Shouting "death or baptism," the mob storms the Jewish houses. When the Jews refuse to be baptized, several thousand are massacred, their corpses burned together with the cadavers of animals.|
|19||1506||1506 Anti-Jewish riots break out in Lisbon, capital of Portugal. A crowd of 10,000 Portuguese, enlarged by German, Dutch, and French sailors from the harbor, enters the Conversos' quarter (Conversos are Jews who converted to Christianity) and slaughters men, women, and children. Several pyres are set up in different places of the town, and dead as well as living are burned on them. The massacre lasts until April 23 and about 3,000 Conversos are murdered. The governor of Lisbon tries in vain to intervene in the name of King Manuel.||20||1017||1017 A considerable number of people are killed by a heavy storm raging in Rome, Italy. Pope Benedict VIII is told that the Jews have insulted the image of Christ in the synagogue and thereupon he has a number of Jews beheaded. According to the Christian annals the storm dies away at once.|
|21||1920||1920 Several Jews are driven out of their home by a detachment of soldiers in Vilna, Poland (today Lithuanian S.S.R.). One of them is shot immediately, another is tied to a horse and dragged to death in the streets||22||1942||About 3,000 Jews from the ghetto of Wloclavek, Poland, are deported by the Nazis to the Chelmno extermination camp, where all of them will perish.|
|23||1936||1936 This night the British authorities evacuate the Jewish inhabitants of Hebron, Palestine, as they are not able to guarantee their safety from the hostile Arab population. The Jewish community has existed there since the sixteenth century and was destroyed for the first time in 1929 by Arab rioters, then rebuilt in 1931.||24||1288||1288 The Jews from the town of Troyes, France, are accused of ritual murder. During the Jewish feast of Passover, a dead body has been placed in the house of a Jewish notable of Troyes, Isaac Chatelain. The inquiry is carried out by the Franciscan and Dominican orders and 13 Jews, most of them members of the Chatelain family, sacrifice themselves in order to save the community. They are burned at the stake on April 24.|
|25||1943||1943 An unknown number of Jewsincluding many children and womenare shot in the forest of Bikerneku near Riga, Latvia.||26||1343||1343 A ritual murder accusation is raised against the Jews of Germersheim, Germany. Thereupon, the town's whole Jewish community is burned at the stake|
|27||1942||About 2,000 Jews from the Wloclavek ghetto in Poland, the remainders of the 13,500 Jewish inhabitants of this town, are deported to the Chelmno extermination camp. They are murdered immediately after their arrival.||28||1919||1919 In the town of Dubovo in the province of Kiev, Ukraine, units of the Ukrainian National Army carry out a pogrom, looting Jewish houses and killing 38 Jews.|
|29||1942||The SS hangs 7 Jews in the town of Chrzanov in the Polish district of Cracow, because they have baked bread illegally.||30||1679||1679 The third auto-da-fé in a series of five within one year is held in Palma de Mallorca on the Balearic Islands, Spain. There, 62 persons are accused of being Judaizers, descendants of Jews forcibly baptized some centuries ago who still practice the Jewish faith secretly. They are sentenced to incarceration for life. Their property is confiscated by the Church and the Crown.|
|1||1265||1265 The Jewish community of Sinzig, Ger-many, is annihilated as predicted by the proselyte Abraham, who is burned at the stake in December 1264. The 61 Jewish men, women, and children are driven into the synagogue, which is set on fire.||2||1942||1942 The Nazis murder 3,000 Jews from Du-nayevtsy, a town near Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukrainian S.S.R.|
|3||1096||1096 Soldiers of the First Crusade surround the synagogue in Speyer, Germany, which has one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany, in order to kill the Jews after the service. The Jews inside have been warned but 11 Jews who are found outside are massacred.||4||1942||The Sobibor extermination camp in Poland is erected and ready for the gassings. In the first year and a half of its existence, 250,000 Jews are murdered.|
|5||1945||1945 The concentration camp in Mauthausen, Austria, is liberated by the American army, which finds 3,000 unburied dead bodies lying between the barracks.||6||1691||1691 A secret synagogue is discovered in Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, and the Judaizers are punished. In the main auto-da-fé, 25 persons are killed; 22 are garroted before being burned. Raphael Vails, the spiritual leader of the group, and his principal disciples, Raphael Benito Terongi and his sister Catalina Terongi, are burned alive.|
|7||1919||1919 During a pogrom 82 Jews are slaughtered and 12 are wounded in Brazlav, Podolia. The po-grom is led by hetman Tiutiunnik and his units, allies of Simon Petlyura and his Ukrainian Na-tional Army.||8||1942||1942 3,500 Jews from the ghetto of Konskovola, Poland, are deported to the Sobibor extermination camp. Also sent are 1,500 Jews from the ghetto of Baranov and 1,500 Jews from Markuszov, Poland.|
|9||1942||The SS murders 2,000 Jews in Szczuczyn, in the Novogrodek district of Belorussian S.S.R.||10||1427||1427 The Jews of Bern, Switzerland, are expelled from the town "for the honor and greater glory of the Lord, his Mother and all the Saints."|
|11||1944||1944 During a several-day Aktion, 15,000 Jews from Kassa in north Hungary and its surrounding area are deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland.||12||1020||1020 On Good Friday, an earthquake followed by a hurricane ravages Rome, Italy, and Pope Benedict VIII has a number of Jews arrested for alleged host desecration. They all "confess" under torture and are burned at the stake.|
|13||1728||1728 When a baptized Jew, Jan Philipowicz, wants to return to the Jewish faith, the Church orders the arrest of all Jews of Lvov, Poland. Most Jews manage to flee, but the brothers Chaim and Joshua Reizes and a rabbi are imprisoned. The rabbi manages to escape and Joshua Reizes commits suicide. Chaim Reizes is publicly tortured and then burned at the stake with his brother's corpse.||14||1942||
1942 From Gorzkow, Poland, 1,200 Jews are deported to the Sobibor extermination camp.
1,700 Jews are deported from Brzezany, Poland, to the Chelmno extermination camp.
|15||1943||1943 In one week, 14,000 Jews are deported from Piotrkov, Poland, to the Auschwitz extermination camp.||16||1942||1942 After an Aktion in the ghetto of Pabianice, Poland, carried out by the SS, in which 150 Jews are killed, 8,000 Jews are deported to the Chelmno extermination camp.|
|17||1942||From the ghetto of Zaviercie, Katovice province, Poland, 2,000 Jews are deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp.||18||1096||1096 Troops of the First Crusade arrive in Worms on the Rhine, Germany. The wealthy Jews receive protectionafter paymentfrom the bishop of Worms in his own castle. The other 500 Jews, who stay in their houses, are slaughtered. The town is looted and the Torah scrolls are burned. Among the victims are Rabbi Solomon and his family.|
1943 The liquidation of the Busk ghetto in the Polish province of Galicia (today Soviet Union), takes place. About 1,500 Jews are killed.
Berlin, the capital of the Reich, is declared "free of Jews."
|20||1944||1944 The seventy-fourth deportation convoy of cattle cars leaves French territory bringing 1,200 Jewish men and women, assembled and detained in Drancy, to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland. Immediately after their arrival, 904 are gassed.|
|21||1921||1921 In Jaffa and Tel Aviv, Palestine, 34 Jews are massacred by the Arabs, among them the famous Hebrew author Joseph Brenner.||22||1942||
1942 From the Ozorkov ghetto, Poland, 300 Jewish children are deported to the Chelmno extermination camp. The secretary of the Jewish Council, Mrs. Mania Rzepkovitch, refuses an exemption for her son, who goes with the others.
In the course of the last Aktion in the Dolhinov ghetto, Belorussian S.S.R., the SS kills 4,500 Jews but spares the lives of 500 skilled workers.
|23||1942||The first group of 2,000 Jews are deported from the Wlodava ghetto, Lublin province, Poland, to the Sobibor extermination camp.||24||1241||1241 In Frankfurt on the Main, Germany, a quarrel breaks out between Jews and Christians over the conversion to Catholicism of a Jewish boy whose parents object. The fight escalates and 180 Jews are killed.|
|25||1096||1096 Soldiers of the First Crusade besiege the castle of the bishop of Worms on the Rhine, Germany, in which about 300 Jews have found shelter. Those who don't accept forced baptism are slaughtered or commit suicide. Among the victims are the rabbi of Worms, Simcha ben-Isaac ha-Cohen, and the scholars Alexandri ben-Moshe and Isaac ben-Eliakim.||26||1171||1171 The whole Jewish community of Blois, France, is burned at the stake following the first blood libel accusation in France.|
|27||1096||1096 Troops of the First Crusade under the command of the count of Leiningen approach Mainz, Germany, and set out to kill the Jews mere in spite of the protection decree issued by the German King Henry IV. The whole Jewish community of 1,300, who have taken refuge in the bishop's castle, is slaughtered. Among the dead are Rabbi Menachem ben David ha-Levi and his whole family.||28||1349||1349 A fire breaks out in Breslau, Silesia, Germany (today Poland), and the mob exploits the situation to attack the Jews. Only 6 people out of 66 Jewish families survive.|
1942 During the first large-scale Aktion in Rad-zivillov near Volyn in the Ukrainian S.S.R., 1,500 Jews are driven out of the town and shot. This Aktion leads to the founding of a resistance movement by the Jews under the leadership of Asher Czerkaski.
For the second time, 3,000 Jews of Opole, Poland, are deported to the Sobibor extermination camp.
|30||1541||1541 The great auto-da-fé occurs in Sicily, marking the climax of the persecution of the Jews, when 19 Conversos, Jews or descendants of Jews who were forcibly baptized in 1492, are probably burned at the stake.|
|31||1942||All the patients in the Jewish hospital in Prze-myslany, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), are murdered by the Gestapo.|
|1||1906||1906 During a pogrom, 78 Jews are slaughtered and 84 severely injured in Bialystok, Poland.||2||1453||1453 An accusation of host desecration and murder of a Christian boy leads to a trial against the Jewish community of Breslau, Silesia (today Wroclaw, Poland). At the end of the trial, 41 Jews are found guilty and are burned at the stake, the rabbi commits suicide, and the other Jews of the community are expelled from Breslau, after the Christians abducted their children under 7 years in order to baptize them and raise them as Christians.|
|3||1942||1942 During the final Aktion of the SS, 3,000 Jews in the ghetto of Braslav, Belorussian S.S.R., are murdered. Peasants of the region and the citizens of Braslav are invited to participate. A group of Jewish resistance fighters helps a group of Jews to escape.||4||1943||1943 The SS and Ukrainian police massacre 400 Jews in the village of Kozova, Galicia, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.).|
|5||1943||1943 In the course of three days, the ghetto of Brody, Lvov province (Ukrainian S.S.R.), is liquidated and nearly 10,000 Jews are deported to the Belzec extermination camp.||6||1391||1391 The inhabitants of Seville, Spain, surround the Jewish quarter and set fire to it. They massacre about 5,000 Jewish families and sell many Jewish women and children to the Muslims as slaves. Most of the 23 synagogues of Seville are destroyed or are turned into churches.|
|7||1891||1891 Following the accusation of ritual murder against the Jews of Konitz, Germany (today Poland), anti-Jewish agitation breaks out. When a Christian butcher is finally arrested for the homicide, the enraged populace destroys the synagogue. The German emperor sends two infantry regiments to restore order.||8||1288||1288 In Bonn, Germany, 104 Jews are slain after an accusation of the ritual murder of a Christian boy from Oberwesel. The accusation spreads into the surrounding area, and the persecution of the Jews spreads as well.|
|9||1943||1943 The SS murders 800 Jews in Skala Pod-laska in the province of Galicia, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.).||10||1648||1648 A band of Chmielnicki Cossacks under the command of Ganja besieges the fortified town of Nemirov, Poland, and slaughters about 6,000 Jews who have taken refuge in the fortress.|
|11||1942||1942 In a three-day Aktion, 12,000 Jews from Tarnow, Poland, are deported by the SS to the Belzec extermination camp.||12||1942||
1942 From Sosnoviec, Katovice province, Poland, 2,000 Jews are deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp.
In two deportation transports which travel two days from the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia to Trawniki, Poland, 2,000 Jewish men, women, and children die.
|13||1941||1941 Several hundred Jews from Belgorod-Dnestrovski, Bessarabia, Rumania (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), are deported to Siberia by the Soviets. Jews have lived in Belgorod-Dnestrovski since the sixteenth century.||14||1944||1944 From the Greek island of Corfu, 1,800 Jews are deported to the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland.|
|15||1919||1919 During a two-day pogrom, carried out by troops under Zaporojski Koche, an ally of Petlyu-ra's Ukrainian National Army, 148 Jews are slaughtered, many are wounded, and several Jewish women are raped in Jaltichkov, Podolia province, Ukraine. On the same day 26 Jews are massacred and many Jewish women and girls are raped in the course of a five-day pogrom in Pereyaslav, Poltava, Ukraine, under command of Zeleny, another of Petlyura's allies.||16||1492||1492 King Ferdinand of Aragon, the Spanish king, whose domain includes Sicily, issues the edict that all Jews must leave the country within three months, those remaining being liable to death.|
|17||1919||1919 Of the 900 Jews of Dubovo, Ukraine, 800 are beheaded during the most sadistic pogrom in a series of many carried out by units directly under Simon Petlyura and his Ukrainian National Army.||18||1942||
1942 In the course of two days, 2,500 Jews from Kolbuszova, Lvov district, Poland, are murdered by the SS and Ukrainian police.
The SS murders 1,200 Jews in Rudnik, Lvov district, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.).
1941 Three days before the outbreak of war with the Soviet Union, the Rumanians order that, within a half hour, all Jews must evacuate the village of Darabani. The Jews are robbed of their possessions and driven to Dorohoi, 22 miles away.
The Soviets deport all Zionists from Falesti, Bessarabia (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), to Siberia. At the outbreak of World War II, 4,000 Jews lived in Falesti.
|20||1391||1391 During the Jewish fast commemorating the fall of Jerusalem, the Christian population of Toledo, Spain, attacks the Jewish community. Many Jews are massacred and many others commit suicide. The persecutions spread throughout Spain.|
|21||1943||1943 The ghetto in Lvov, Galicia, Poland (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), is erected; but within a week it is again liquidated and the SS murders 13,000 Jews in the sandpits of Piaski in the Janovska camp or in the Jewish cemetery.||22||1239||1239 During the feast of St. Alban, an anti-Jewish riot breaks out in London, England. A Jew is accused of murder and several others are later arrested. The proceedings against them are directed by the prime minister of King Henry HI. Several of the Jews are executed.|
|23||1298||1298 The Rindfleisch Persecutions, named after the German knight from the Franconian town of Roettingen, annihilated 146 Jewish communities in southern and central Germany. In Windsheim in Franconia 55 Jews are burned at the stake; 900 Jews of the large Jewish community of Würzburg are slain, among them 100 who had sought refuge there from other places. In the little town of Neu-stadt on the Aisch River, 71 Jews are burned to death.||24||1648||1648 When the Cossack hordes of Chmielnicki occupy Homel, Ukraine, they slaughter 2,000 Jewish men, women, and children. The same Cossacks kill 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in the Nesterow fortress in Tulczyn, Polish Ukraine (today Ukrainian S.S.R.).|
1942 After 5,000 Jews are massacred, the large-scale Aktion carried out by the SS and Lithuanian volunteers in Lida, Belorussian S.S.R., ends.
The SS murders 6,000 Jews in two days in Lecho-vicz, in the district of Novogrodek, Belorussian S.S.R.
|26||1221||1221 A band of pilgrims from Friesland bound for the Holy Land storm the Jewish quarter of Erfurt, Germany, and kill 26 Jews.|
|27||1096||1096 The Jews from Cologne who have found refuge in Geldern, Germany, are massacred by the crusaders or commit suicide.||28||1244||1244 Several Jews from Pforzheim, Germany, are forced by the judicial council to commit suicide, presumably on the charge of blood libel, using the blood of a Christian child in the Jewish festival of Passover. Their corpses are broken on the wheel as an example to the public.|
|29||1941||1941 A day after German troops occupy Bra-zlav, Podolia (today Ukrainian S.S.R.), they drive the 2,500 Jewish inhabitants into the swamps near the town. The Gentile population is allowed to loot the Jews' homes in their absence, until nothing of their property is left. The Jews who are physically unable to make their way out of the swamps are shot by the Nazis.||30||1680||1680 The greatest auto-da-fé in the history of the Spanish Inquisition takes place in Madrid, Spain, when 72 people are accused of being Ju-daizers, descendants of Jews forcibly baptized some centuries ago who still secretly practice the Jewish religion. The Inquisition condemns 18 of them to be burned at the stake and Charles II, the king of Spain, personally lights the fire. The remaining 54 Judaizers are sentenced to the galley or to life imprisonment.|